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Withings takes care to create quality medical content for its application, involving experts in the different phases of selection, writing, or validation of medical content published in Health Mate. 


Our medical team systematically relies on the latest international health recommendations (WHO, CDC, medical societies, medical research institutes), as well as  clinical studies, and on the systematic analysis of the literature and articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals recognized for their quality.


When designing medical content, Withings also involves recognized experts in their field (doctors, researchers, etc.) and ensures that their profile is well suited to the theme of the subject of the content. The quality process implemented at Withings ensures up-to-date medical content and sources. 


Our declaration of interests:

All healthcare professionals mentioned hereafter have received compensation from Withings in their capacity as medical experts.


The quality process consists of the following:

  • Analysis of needs
  • Bibliographic research
  • Content design
  • Writing
  • Verification of the quality of the content, followed by proofreading from an expert
  • Translation and final validation before putting it online
  • Operational watch to regularly check that the content present in the application is always up to date


Our primary institutional sources are:


The primary Withings contributors of medical content are:

  • Dr. Amina Chaudhry, Medical Director ➞ Specialties: internal medicine/primary care, general medicine, addictology, HIV medicine, clinical research, digital health
  • Dr. Shikha Anand, Chief Medical Officer ➞ Specialties: Pediatrics, Preventive Medicine, Public Health
  • Pr. Pierre Escourrou, medical expert ➞ Specialties: cardiology and sleep medicine
  • Dr. Wulfran Bougouin, medical expert ➞ Specialties: cardiology and Intensive care medicine
  • Myriam Paperman, medical expert, clinical psychologist


The main people involved in the quality process are:

  • Monica Oxenreiter, Health Content Manager
  • Flore Kimmel, Content Project Manager
  • Susie Felber, Director of Global Content


The main bibliographical sources used for writing the health content published in the application are as follows:

- A. P. Avolio, K. M. Clyde, T. C. Beard, H. M. Cooke, K. K. Ho, and M. F. O’Rourke, “Improved arterial distensibility in normotensive subjects on a low salt diet,” Arterioscler. Dallas Tex, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 166–169, Apr. 1986.

- Aiello KD, Caughey WG, Nelluri B, Sharma A, Mookadam F, Mookadam M, “Effect of exercise training on sleep apnea: A systematic review and meta-analysis.”

- American Academy of Family Physicians : “Decongestants : OTC Relief for Congestion,” “Types of Antidepressants.”

- American Academy of Pediatrics, 2008. Febrile seizures : clinical practice guideline for the long-term management of the child with simple febrile seizures. Pediatrics 121, 1281–1286 

- American Academy of Pediatrics, 2011. Fever and antipyretic use in children. Pediatrics 127, 580–587.

- American Lung Association : “Asthma Medicines Chart.”

- Bakhai, A., Sandberg, A., Mittendorf, T., Greiner, W., Oberdiek, A. M., Berto, P., Franczok, E., Lobban, T., & Zamorano, J. L. (2013). Patient perspective on the management of atrial fibrillation in five European countries. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 13(1), 108.

- Banabilh SM, Suzina AH, Dinsuhaimi S, Samsudin AR, Singh GD, “Craniofacial obesity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.”

- Berit Brogaard : “How Deep Relaxation Affects Brain Chemistry”

- Bhat, A., Khanna, S., Chen, H. H. L., Gupta, A., Gan, G. C. H., Denniss, A. R., MacIntyre, C. R., & Tan, T. C. (2021). Integrated Care in Atrial Fibrillation: A Road Map to the Future. Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 14(3), e007411.

- Bruno RM, Nilsson PM, Engström G, Wadström BN, Empana JP, Boutouyrie P, Laurent S. Early and Supernormal Vascular Aging: Clinical Characteristics and Association With Incident Cardiovascular Events. Hypertension. 2020 Nov;76(5):1616-1624. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14971. Epub 2020 Sep 8. PMID: 32895017.

- Campo D, Khettab H, Yu R, Genain N, Edouard P, Buard N, Boutouyrie P. Measurement of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity With a Connected Bathroom Scale. Am J Hypertens. 2017 Sep 1;30(9):876-883. doi : 10.1093/ajh/hpx059. PMID : 28520843 ; PMCID : PMC5861589.

- CDC - Key Sleep Disorders—Sleep and Sleep Disorders. (2019, February 13).

- CDC. (2020, November 9). 5 Surprising Facts About High Blood Pressure | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- CDC. (2021a, May 18). High Blood Pressure Symptoms, Causes, and Problems | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- CDC. (2021b, September 27). Facts About Hypertension | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- CDC. (2022a, April 8). Sleep for good health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- CDC. (2022b, June 3). Good Nutrition. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- CDC. (2022c, June 17). CDC Nutrition. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

- Cleveland Clinic : “Your Heart and the Big 4 Med Types to Avoid,” “Heart Patients : 3 Common Medications You May Need to Avoid,” “Heart Palpitations.”

- Deaton, C., Dunbar, S. B., Moloney, M., Sears, S. F., & Ujhelyi, M. R. (2003). Patient experiences with atrial fibrillation and treatment with implantable atrial defibrillation therapy. Heart & Lung: The Journal of Critical Care, 32(5), 291–299.

- Devkota, S., Dhungana, R. R., Pandey, A. R., Bista, B., Panthi, S., Thakur, K. K., & Gajurel, R. M. (2016). Barriers to Treatment and Control of Hypertension among Hypertensive Participants: A Community-Based Cross-sectional Mixed Method Study in Municipalities of Kathmandu, Nepal. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 3.

- Do You Get Enough Sleep? | CDC. (2021, March 15).

- E. J. Balkestein, D. P. van Aggel-Leijssen, M. A. van Baak, H. A. Struijker-Boudier, and L. M. Van Bortel, “The effect of weight loss with or without exercise training on large artery compliance in healthy obese men,” J. Hypertens., vol. 17, no. 12 Pt 2, pp. 1831–1835, Dec. 1999.

- Edouard, P., Campo, D., Bartet, P., Yang, R.-Y., Bruyneel, M., Roisman, G., & Escourrou, P. (2021). Validation of the Withings Sleep Analyzer, an under-the-mattress device for the detection of moderate-severe sleep apnea syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.

- European Lung Foundation : “E-cigarettes linked to increased arterial stiffness, blood pressure and heart rate in humans.”

- Experiences of patients and professionals participating in the HITS home blood pressure telemonitoring trial: A qualitative study | BMJ Open. (n.d.). Retrieved May 16, 2022, from

- FDA : “Learning About Side Effects,” “Thyroid Medications : Q&A with Mary Parks, M.D.”

- Fortuna, R. J., Nagel, A. K., Rocco, T. A., Legette-Sobers, S., & Quigley, D. D. (2018). Patient Experience With Care and Its Association With Adherence to Hypertension Medications. American Journal of Hypertension, 31(3), 340–345.

- Garcia-Rio F, Alonso-Fernández A, Armada E, Mediano O, Lores V, Rojo B, Fernández-Lahera J, Fernández-Navarro I, Carpio C, Ramírez T, “CPAP effect on recurrent episodes in patients with sleep apnea and myocardial infarction.”

- Gazit, T., Gutman, M., & Beatty, A. L. (2021). Assessment of Hypertension Control Among Adults Participating in a Mobile Technology Blood Pressure Self-management Program. JAMA Network Open, 4(10), e2127008.

- Hallberg, I., Ranerup, A., & Kjellgren, K. (2016). Supporting the self-management of hypertension: Patients’ experiences of using a mobile phone-based system. Journal of Human Hypertension, 30(2), 141–146.

- Harvard Medical School : “Meditation offers significant heart benefits”

- Harvard Medical School : “Skipping a Beat—the Surprise of Heart Palpitations,” “Don’t Let Decongestants Squeeze Your Heart.”Heart & Stroke: "Beta-blockers"

- Harvard Medical School : “Understanding the stress response", "Chronic activation of this survival mechanism impairs health” American Heart Association Journals: " “The Nighttime Might be the Right Time” for Cardiovascular Event Prediction"

- Heidbuchel, H., Dagres, N., Antz, M., Kuck, K.-H., Lazure, P., Murray, S., Carrera, C., Hindricks, G., & Vahanian, A. (2018). Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: A European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment. EP Europace, 20(12), 1919–1928.

- Herzog L, Phillips S. Addressing Concerns About Fever. Clinical Paediatrics. 2011; 50(#5): 383-390 

- Hirotsu C, Tufik S, Andersen ML. : “Interactions between sleep, stress, and metabolism : From physiological to pathological conditions.”

- Hodgkinson, J. A., Stevens, R., Grant, S., Mant, J., Bray, E. P., Hobbs, F. D. R., Martin, U., Schwartz, C., McCartney, D., O’Mahony, R., Perera-Salazar, R., Roberts, N., Stevens, S., Williams, B., & McManus, R. J. (2019). Schedules for Self-monitoring Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review. American Journal of Hypertension, 32(4), 350–364.








- I. B. Wilkinson, C. M. McEniery, G. Schillaci, P. Boutouyrie, P. Segers, A. Donald, and P. J. Chowienczyk, “ARTERY Society guidelines for validation of non-invasive haemodynamic measurement devices: Part 1, arterial pulse wave velocity,” Artery Res., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 34–40, Jun. 2010.

- Jan Magnus Fredheim, Jan Rollheim, Rune Sandbu, Dag Hofsø, Torbjørn Omland, Jo Røislien and Jøran Hjelmesæth, “Obstructive Sleep Apnea after Weight Loss: A Clinical Trial Comparing Gastric Bypass and Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.”

- Javaheri S, Barbe F, Campos-Rodriguez F, Dempsey JA, Khayat R, Javaheri S, Malhotra A, Martinez-Garcia MA, Mehra R, Pack AI, Polotsky VY, Redline S, Somers VK, “Sleep Apnea: Types, Mechanisms, and Clinical Cardiovascular Consequences.”

- Jensen MT, Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F. : “Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality : a 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study.”

- Khatib, R., Schwalm, J.-D., Yusuf, S., Haynes, R. B., McKee, M., Khan, M., & Nieuwlaat, R. (2014). Patient and Healthcare Provider Barriers to Hypertension Awareness, Treatment and Follow Up: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Qualitative and Quantitative Studies. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e84238.

- Laffin, L. J., Kaufman, H. W., Chen, Z., Niles, J. K., Arellano, A. R., Bare, L. A., & Hazen, S. L. (2022). Rise in Blood Pressure Observed Among US Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Circulation, 145(3), 235–237.

- Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Cunha PG, Lacolley P, Nilsson PM. Concept des extrêmes dans le vieillissement vasculaire. Hypertension. 2019 Aug;74(2):218-228. doi : 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.12655. Epub 2019 Jun 17. PMID : 31203728.

- Laurent, Stéphane Définition du vieillissement vasculaire et du risque cardiovasculaire, Journal of Hypertension : Juin 2012 - Volume 30 - Numéro - p S3-S8 doi : 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328353e501

- Leproult R, Copinschi G, Buxton O, Van Cauter E. : “Sleep loss results in an elevation of cortisol levels the next evening.”

- Lusardi P, Mugellini A, Preti P, Zoppi A, Derosa G, Fogari R. : “Effects of a restricted sleep regimen on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive subjects.”

- Lusardi P, Zoppi A, Preti P, Pesce RM, Piazza E, Fogari R. : “Effects of insufficient sleep on blood pressure in hypertensive patients : a 24-h study.”

- Lynch, H. M., Green, A. S., Clarke Nanyonga, R., Gadikota-Klumpers, D. D., Squires, A., Schwartz, J. I., & Heller, D. J. (2019). Exploring patient experiences with and attitudes towards hypertension at a private hospital in Uganda: A qualitative study. International Journal for Equity in Health, 18(1), 206.

- Marin JM, Carrizo SJ, Vicente E, Agusti AG, “Long-term cardiovascular outcomes in men with obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea with or without treatment with continuous positive airway pressure: an observational study.”

- Mayo Clinic : “Tachycardia,” “Phenylephrine (Nasal Route),” “Albuterol Side Effects : Can I Avoid Them ?”

- McBride, C. M., Morrissey, E. C., & Molloy, G. J. (2020). Patients’ Experiences of Using Smartphone Apps to Support Self-Management and Improve Medication Adherence in Hypertension: Qualitative Study. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 8(10), e17470.

- McManus, R. J., Little, P., Stuart, B., Morton, K., Raftery, J., Kelly, J., Bradbury, K., Zhang, J., Zhu, S., Murray, E., May, C. R., Mair, F. S., - Michie, S., Smith, P., Band, R., Ogburn, E., Allen, J., Rice, C., Nuttall, J., … Bailey, Z. (2021). Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) using a digital intervention in poorly controlled hypertension: Randomised controlled trial. The BMJ, 372, m4858.

- McManus, R. J., Mant, J., Franssen, M., Nickless, A., Schwartz, C., Hodgkinson, J., Bradburn, P., Farmer, A., Grant, S., Greenfield, S. - M., Heneghan, C., Jowett, S., Martin, U., Milner, S., Monahan, M., Mort, S., Ogburn, E., Perera-Salazar, R., Shah, S. A., … Banerjee, T. (2018). Efficacy of self-monitored blood pressure, with or without telemonitoring, for titration of antihypertensive medication (TASMINH4): An unmasked randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 391(10124), 949–959.

- Motilal Tayade : “A Comparative Study Of Resting Heart Rate In Smokers And Nonsmokers”

- Naresh M. Punjabi, Brian S. Caffo, James L. Goodwin, Daniel J. Gottlieb, Anne B. Newman, George T. O'Connor, David M. Rapoport, Susan Redline, Helaine E. Resnick, John A. Robbins, Eyal Shahar, Mark L. Unruh, and Jonathan M. Samet, “Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study"

- Nilsson PM, Boutouyrie P, Laurent S. Vascular aging : A tale of EVA and ADAM in cardiovascular risk assessment and prevention. Hypertension. 2009 Jul;54(1):3-10. doi : 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.129114. Epub 2009 Jun 1. PMID : 19487587.

- Office of Dietary Supplements—Omega-3 Fatty Acids. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2022, from

- P. Boutouyrie, D. Fliser, D. Goldsmith, A. Covic, A. Wiecek, A. Ortiz, A. Martinez-Castelao, B. Lindholm, Z. A. Massy, G. Suleymanlar, R. Sicari, L. Gargani, G. Parati, F. Mallamaci, C. Zoccali, and G. M. London, “Assessment of arterial stiffness for clinical and epidemiological studies: methodological considerations for validation and entry into the European Renal and Cardiovascular Medicine registry,” Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., p. gft309, Sep. 2013.

- Pan L, Xie X, Liu D, Ren D, Guo Y, “Obstructive sleep apnoea and risks of all-cause mortality: preliminary evidence from prospective cohort studies.”

- Peppard PE, Szklo-Coxe M, Hla KM, Young T, “Longitudinal association of sleep-related breathing disorder and depression.”

- Peppard PE, Young T, Palta M, Skatrud J, “Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension.”

- Peter J. Green, Robert Kirby, Jerry Suls : “The effects of caffeine on blood pressure and heart rate : A review”

- Punjabi NM, “The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea.”

- Reference Values for Arterial Stiffness' Collaboration. Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'establishing normal and reference values'. Eur Heart J. 2010 Oct;31(19):2338-50. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehq165. Epub 2010 Jun 7. PMID: 20530030; PMCID: PMC2948201.

- S. Laurent, J. Cockcroft, L. V. Bortel, P. Boutouyrie, C. Giannattasio, D. Hayoz, B. Pannier, C. Vlachopoulos, I. Wilkinson, and H. Struijker-Boudier, “Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 27, no. 21, pp. 2588–2605, Nov. 2006

- Shantharam, S. S., Mahalingam, M., Rasool, A., Reynolds, J. A., Bhuiya, A. R., Satchell, T. D., Chapel, J. M., Hawkins, N. A., Jones, C. - D., Jacob, V., & Hopkins, D. P. (2022). Systematic Review of Self-Measured Blood Pressure Monitoring With Support: Intervention Effectiveness and Cost. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 62(2), 285–298.

- Sheppard, J. P., Tucker, K. L., Davison, W. J., Stevens, R., Aekplakorn, W., Bosworth, H. B., Bove, A., Earle, K., Godwin, M., Green, B. - B., Hebert, P., Heneghan, C., Hill, N., Hobbs, F. D. R., Kantola, I., Kerry, S. M., Leiva, A., Magid, D. J., Mant, J., … McManus, R. J. (2020). Self-monitoring of Blood Pressure in Patients With Hypertension-Related Multi-morbidity: Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension, 33(3), 243–251.

- Straznicky NE, Lambert EA, Lambert GW, Masuo K, Esler MD, Nestel PJ. : “Effects of dietary weight loss on sympathetic activity and cardiac risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome.”

- Stridsman, M., Strömberg, A., Hendriks, J., & Walfridsson, U. (2019). Patients’ Experiences of Living with Atrial Fibrillation: A Mixed Methods Study. Cardiology Research and Practice, 2019, 6590358.

- Tapas Pramanik, Hari Om Sharma, Suchita Mishra, Anurag Mishra, Rajesh Prajapati, and Smriti Singh : “Immediate Effect of Slow Pace Bhastrika Pranayama on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate"

- Terry Young, Paul E. Peppard, and Daniel J. Gottlieb, “Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Population Health Perspective.”

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